The new coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) was discovered in Wuhan virus pneumonia cases in 2019, and was named by the World Health Organization on January 12, 2020. Now WHO rename it as COVID-19. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to cause colds and more serious diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The new coronavirus is a new coronavirus strain that has never been found in humans before.
Since December 2019, Wuhan City, Hubei Province has continued to carry out surveillance of influenza and related diseases, and found multiple cases of viral pneumonia, all of which were diagnosed with viral pneumonia/pulmonary infection.
Common signs of a person infected with a coronavirus include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and dyspnea. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. There is currently no specific treatment for diseases caused by the new coronavirus. However, many symptoms of coronavirus can be controled, so they need to be treated according to the clinical situation of the patient. In addition, assistive care for infected people can be very effective.
People infected with the virus will experience symptoms to varying degrees, some with fever or a mild cough, some with pneumonia, and some with more severe or even death. The lethality of the virus is about 2% to 4%, but this is a very early percentage and may change as more information becomes available. At the same time, this does not mean that it is not serious, it just means that not everyone infected with the virus will face the worst consequences.
In December 2019, some hospitals in Wuhan appeared patients with unexplained pneumonia. Wuhan City continued to carry out surveillance of influenza and related diseases and found 27 cases of viral pneumonia, all of whom were diagnosed with viral pneumonia / pulmonary infection.
As of December 31, 2019, of the 27 cases, 7 were critically ill, and the remaining cases were in controllable condition, and 2 of them were improved and are expected to be leave soon. In the morning of December 31, 2019, an expert group of the National Health Commission arrived in Wuhan, and related virus typing testing, isolation treatment, and terminal disinfection were in progress.
On January 3, 2020, according to the website of the Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission, since December 2019, our commission has carried out surveillance of respiratory diseases and related diseases and found cases of viral pneumonia of unknown origin. The clinical manifestations of the cases are mainly fever, and a few patients Difficulty breathing, chest X-ray showed invasive lesions of both lungs. Till 8:00 on January 3, 2020, a total of 44 patients with unexplained diagnosis of viral pneumonia were found, of which 11 were critically ill, and the vital signs of the remaining patients were generally stable.
On the evening of January 5, 2020, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission informed that Wuhan had reported a total of 59 patients with unexplained diagnosis of viral pneumonia, including 7 critically ill patients.
On February 10, 2020, Hubei Province held a press conference on the prevention and control of the new coronavirus pneumonia epidemic. Zhang Dingyu, deputy secretary of the party committee and director of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, introduced that new coronavirus pneumonia is actually a self-limited disease. "The cure rate in our hospital is still very high. At present, the number of patients with new coronavirus pneumonia treated in our hospital has exceeded 1500. The majority of patients, including severe and critically ill patients, have undergone various oxygen therapy, symptomatic treatment and After the immunomodulatory treatment, they can be discharged smoothly, and the citizens do not have to be overly panicked. "
Above data update till July. 20, 2020
People of all ages may be infected easy, mainly adults, and elderly and frail people seem to be more likely to be infected. There is no evidence that pets such as cats and dogs can be infected. Children and pregnant women are vulnerable to new coronavirus infections.
The main routes of transmission of new coronaviruses are respiratory droplets and contact transmission. Aerosol and fecal-oral routes of transmission need to be further clarified. Epidemiological investigations have shown that cases can be traced to close contact with confirmed cases.
Refers to the infection caused by the patient's sneezing, coughing, talking droplets, and exhaled gas directly inhaled;
It means that the droplets are mixed in the air to form an aerosol, which causes infection after inhalation;
It means that the droplets are deposited on the surface of the article, contact the contaminated hands, and then contact the mucous membranes such as the oral cavity, nasal cavity, and eyes, causing infection.
How to prevent infection with coronavirus? The Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends strengthening personal protection, avoiding contact with wild poultry and animals, and preventing sickness from going to work and gatherings. When you return from a trip to Wuhan and other places, if you have symptoms of respiratory infections such as fever and cough, you should choose a hospital based on the condition and send a mask to the doctor, and inform the doctor of a similar patient or animal contact history, travel history, etc. The specific suggestions are as follows:
1. Strengthen personal protection
1.1. Avoid crowded public places. Avoid contact with patients with fever and respiratory tract infections. Wear masks if needed.
1.2. Wash your hands frequently. Especially when hands are contaminated with respiratory secretions, after touching public facilities, after taking care of patients with fever, respiratory infections, or vomiting and diarrhea, after visiting hospitals, handling contaminated items, and after contacting animals, animal feed or animal feces.
1.3. Don't spit. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or elbow when sneezing or coughing.
1.4. Strengthen exercise, regular work and rest, and maintain indoor air circulation.
2. Avoid contact with wild poultry
2.1. Avoid contact with poultry, wild animals and their excreta and secretions, and avoid buying live birds and wild animals.
2.2. Avoid going to animal farms and slaughterhouses, live poultry animal trading markets or stalls, wildlife habitats or other places. You must take precautions when you travel, especially for occupationally exposed people.
2.3. Avoid eating wild animals. Do not eat animals and their products that are already sick; buy chilled poultry from regular sources, fully cook poultry, eggs, and milk, and handle fresh and cooked products separately and clean them in time to avoid cross-contamination.
3. Put an end to work and party
If you have symptoms of respiratory tract infections such as fever and cough, take a rest at home, reduce outing and travel, and use more ventilation in the room when the weather is good. Please wear a mask when contacting others. Avoid getting sick at work, class and parties.
4. Seek medical treatment in a timely manner
If you return from a trip to Wuhan and other places, if you have symptoms of respiratory infection such as fever, cough, etc., you should choose a hospital based on the condition to send a fever clinic for treatment, wear a mask, and inform the doctor of similar patient or animal contact history, travel history, etc.
See doctor in time while you feel unwell.
Viral pneumonia is more common in winter and spring, and can be spread or outbreak. The clinical manifestations are fever, soreness, dyspnea in a small part, and lung infiltration. Viral pneumonia is related to the virulence of the virus, the route of infection, and the age and immune status of the host. Viruses that cause viral pneumonia are common with influenza viruses, others are parainfluenza viruses, cytomegaloviruses, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses. Confirmation depends on pathogenic tests, including virus isolation, serological tests, and viral antigen and nucleic acid tests. The disease is preventable and controllable, and indoor air circulation is prevented to prevent public places and closed places where there is no air circulation. People can wear masks when going out. Symptomatic treatment is the main clinical practice, and bed rest is required. If you have the above symptoms, especially the persistent fever, you should go to the medical institution in time.
Guidelines for the protection of people with different risks of new coronavirus infection
In order to guide the protection of people at different risks of the noval coronavirus infection, this guideline is specially formulated. This guide is applicable to ordinary householders, travellers, home quarantines, and people in specific industries.
I. Ordinary household personnel
1.1 Minimize outing activities. Cut down on visiting relatives and friends, and having dinner together. Try to rest at home as much as possible. Reduced to people-intensive public places, especially relatively closed, poorly ventilated places, such as public baths, hot springs, cinemas, Internet cafes, KTVs, shopping malls, stations, airports, terminals and exhibition halls.
1.2 Do a good job of personal protection and hand hygiene. Households provide thermometers, masks, household disinfectants and other items. Masks that have not come into contact with a suspected or confirmed patient and are intact, without odor or dirt, can be placed in a well-ventilated and dry place in the room after returning home for next use. Disposable masks should be disposed of in accordance with the requirements of domestic waste classification. Hand hygiene at all times, returning from public places, coughing and covering hands, before and after meals, wash your hands with hand sanitizer or soap running water, or use disposable hand sanitizer. When you are not sure whether your hands are clean, avoid touching your nose, mouth and eyes. Cover your mouth and nose with elbow clothing when sneezing or coughing.
1.3 Maintain good living habits. The room is tidy, windows are opened frequently, ventilation is frequent, and disinfection is performed regularly. A balanced diet, balanced nutrition, moderate exercise, and adequate rest. Do not spit, wrap nose and nose secretions with paper towels, and put them in a covered dustbin.
1.4 Take the initiative to do a good job of health monitoring of individuals and family members, and take the initiative to measure body temperature when consciously fever. If there is a child in the family, touch the child's forehead sooner or later. If there is fever, take a temperature measurement.
1.5 If there are any suspicious symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, chest tightness, dyspnea, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, muscle soreness, etc., you should go to a medical institution in time according to the condition.
2. Travel personnel
(1) Daily life and work travellers, when going out to supermarkets, restaurants and other public places and taking public transportation, wear masks to minimize close contact with others. Masks are not required when the risk of infection is low, such as when you are alone, driving a car, or walking alone in the park.
(2) When suspicious symptoms need to be seen at a medical institution, masks should be worn. Medical surgical masks can be used. Try to avoid taking subways, buses and other means of transportation, and avoid crowded places. At the time of consultation, medical staff should take the initiative to inform the medical staff of the travel and residence history of the disease endemic area, as well as contact with others, and cooperate with medical and health institutions to conduct relevant investigations.
(3) For long-distance travellers, they need to know in advance whether the destination is an endemic area. If you have to go to an endemic area, you must equip you with necessary items such as a mask, portable hand sanitizer, and thermometer. During travel, try to minimize close contact with others, and wear KN95 / N95 and above particulate protective masks in crowded public transportation places and when using vehicles. Masks need to be replaced in time when the protective performance is reduced due to deformation, wetness or soiling. Keep the public transport ticket information when going to popular areas for reference. When returning from a disease-endemic area, you should register with the community committee and village committee of your community as soon as possible and conduct medical observation. The period of medical observation is 14 days after leaving the disease-endemic area. Monitor the body temperature and physical signs during medical observation, try to live alone or in a well-ventilated single room, and reduce close contact with family members.
3. Home isolation personnel
(1) For those who are in close contact with pneumonia cases of new coronavirus infection, take home medical observation. The medical observation period is 14 days after the last unprotected contact with the case and the infected person. Home isolation personnel should live relatively independently, minimize contact with co-residents, clean and disinfect medical observation sites, and avoid cross-infection. Do not go out during the observation period. If you have to go out, you can only go out with the approval of the medical observation management staff, and wear medical surgical masks to avoid going to crowd places.
(2) Home quarantine personnel take temperature measurement at least twice a day, and visits are not allowed. Minimize close contact with family members. Do not share any items that may cause indirect contact with family members, including toothbrushes, cigarettes, tableware, food, beverages, towels, clothing and bedding. (3) When others enter the living space of the isolated personnel, they should wear KN95 / N95 and above particulate matter protective masks. Do not touch and adjust the masks during the period. Try to avoid direct contact with the home isolation staff. If any direct contact occurs, it should be cleaned and disinfected in time.
4 Personnel in specific industries
(1) For the personnel of the public transport department, taxi drivers, public service personnel, armed police, traffic police, security personnel, media reporters, courier personnel and other industry personnel, because there are many daily contacts, there is a risk of infection. It should be equipped with disposable medical masks or surgical masks or KN95 / N95 and above particulate matter protective masks, as well as hand sanitizers, disinfection paper towels, thermometers and other items, and daily cleaning and disinfection of the working environment. During work, personal protection should be done, and masks should be worn on the job. Masks need to be replaced in time when the protective performance is reduced due to deformation, wetness or soiling. Take care to keep your hands hygienic, wash your hands with hand sanitizer or soapy running water, or use disposable hand sanitizer. Take your temperature at least twice a day. Under normal circumstances, it is not necessary to wear protective clothing, protective masks and other protective equipment. If you have suspicious symptoms (such as fever, cough, sore throat, chest tightness, dyspnea, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, muscle soreness, etc.), you should stop working immediately and isolate or seek medical treatment at home according to the condition.
(2) It is recommended to wear work clothes, disposable work caps, disposable gloves, medical disposable protective clothing, medical protective masks or powered air filtration for workers in isolated wards, medical observation sites, and suspected and confirmed case transfer personnel. Respirators, protective screens or goggles, work shoes or rubber boots, waterproof boot covers, etc.
(3) For epidemiological investigators, when conducting close contact investigations, wear disposable work caps, medical surgical masks, work clothes, and disposable gloves, and keep a distance of more than 1 meter from the subject. When investigating suspected and confirmed cases, it is recommended to wear work clothes, disposable work caps, disposable gloves, medical disposable protective clothing, KN95/N95 and above particulate protective masks or medical protective masks, protective screens or goggles, work shoes or Rubber boots, waterproof boot covers, etc. may also be considered for phonetic or video streaming for suspected and confirmed cases.
(4) For specimen collection staff and biosafety laboratory staff, it is recommended to wear working clothes, disposable work caps, double gloves, medical disposable protective clothing, KN95 / N95 and above particulate protective masks or medical protective masks or powered air Filter-type respirators, face shields, work shoes or rubber boots, waterproof boot covers. If necessary, wear a waterproof apron or waterproof gown.
(5) For environmental cleaning and disinfection personnel and corpse disposal personnel, it is recommended to wear work clothes, disposable work caps, disposable gloves and long-sleeved thick rubber gloves, medical disposable protective clothing, KN95/N95 and above particulate protective masks or medical protection Masks, work shoes or rubber boots, waterproof boot covers, waterproof aprons, or waterproof gowns. Environmental cleaning and disinfection personnel when using powered air supply filter respirators, according to the type of disinfectant, select a dust filter box or a canister to protect chemicals such as disinfectants.